# Science Update

When you're reading our daily reports, you may find it helpful to refer to "What on Earth is a Core?"<

Also, remember that we post all official reports on the IODP United States Implementing Organization website< where you can always access more detail.  Got questions?  Send them<!  Same goes for the challenge questions!

Off to the U1333 science meeting!   Adam

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DATE:  28 March

LOCATION: Hole U1332C (PEAT-2C). 11º 54.74’N, 141º 2.74’W (4926 mbsl)

SCIENCE UPDATE: Offset 30 m to north and prepare to spud Hole U1332C to cover gaps in first two holes. Cores U1332C-1H to 13H and 14X taken from 0 to 118 m DSF; recovered 128.4 m.

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DATE:  29 March

LOCATION:  Hole U1332C (PEAT-2C). 11º 54.74’N, 141º 2.74’W (4926 mbsl)

SCIENCE UPDATE:  Cores U1332-15X to 18X penetrated from 118.0 to 155.5 mbsf; recovered 19.6 m. Coring finished at Hole U1332C; begin transit to Site U1333 (PEAT-3C) with IODP Publications Specialist and birthday girl Kelly VonDrehle at the helm (with Captain Alex Simpson, of course)

Challenge:  Calculate the % recovery for both days.  Send your answers through the Comment function below.

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Photo:  Leaving U1332 with Kelly VonDrehle and Captain Alex Simpson at the helm.  Credit:  Bill Crawford, IODP Imaging Specialist.

### Questions

128.4/118=109%
19.6/(155.5-118)=52%

Does everyone get to drive on their birthday?

What kind of license does it take to drive the ship? attach drill bits? operate the drilling rig?

Any chance of all those holes your drilling causing an earthquake/tsunami?

What size wave can the ship handle during normal drill operations and not lose all the drill pipe?

What happens to all the waste generated on board?

### Waste not!

Here's what Chief Engineer Daniel Slobodzian has to share about the waste the 120 of us (and The JR herself) generate:

What do we do with waste aboard covers a lot of ground….

Sewage is collected by a vacuum system that discharges to a sewage plant or MSD (marine sanitation device) for treatment before discharging a treated effluent overboard. These units must meet international design standards with regard to the quality of the effluent.

Gray Water (sinks and showers) is normally discharged overboard but we do have the ability to retain this onboard in some storage tanks should we operate in a restricted area that requires retention of this water.

Solid refuse/waste – Again, international laws prevail and while some is burned in our incinerators (at sea) some is compacted and retained on board for disposal ashore. It is illegal to discharge plastic overboard at any time, so this material is either burned (with ash retained) or compacted and saved for putting ashore. Other solid waste may be discharged overboard depending on ship distance from shore and if ground up to certain dimensions.

Air pollution – Due to the age of our vessel we comply with the laws in this area by using low sulphur fuels. Also under this law are regulations governing the types of refrigerants used (ozone depleting substances). We have to track all usage and use the more modern types with little or no ozone depletion characteristics. Our incinerators also have to meet design and construction regulations to limit the types of air pollutants they may discharge.

Oil pollution – International law in this area regulates how we dispose of bilge water. Since we don’t carry oil as a cargo, we follow laws that govern how we collect, treat and discharge machinery space bilges. During the recent upgrade of the ship we made improvements in this area so that bilge water may be kept segregated from waste oil more readily. We can also heat the collected water to aid in separating oil from water, and use our Oily Water Separator and Oil Content Meter to ensure we only discharge water with less than 15 ppm of oil. Separated oil is burned in an incinerator or discharged to an approved facility ashore.

The vessel is required to have a waste management plan and this is inspected during routine port state inspections carried out in various ports we visit and by our flag state at regular intervals. Company policy also specifies certain actions with regard to waste management above and beyond international law.

Answered by Captain Alex Simpson, Master of the Vessel:

There are four personnel on board almost every ship who are licensed to drive or "con" the ship. It all starts with maritime college for a minimum of three years, and then you need to get good grades on your 2nd Mate’s License or "certificate of competency.” Following some hands-on experience, like 18 months sea time, you can then go back to college for another six months or so and complete the Chief Mate’s exam...followed by another 18 months at sea then a return, once again, to college for six months to complete a Master Mariner's "certificate of competency" which allows you to sail as Captain. However, all of these Mates can "con" the ship as soon as they have a license, and one of them is on the Navigation Bridge at all times.

The subjects we study are varied -- Navigation (math), Ship Stability (Physics), -- Electronic Navigation Systems, Radio Operating and Dynamic Positioning (Computing) -- International and Maritime Business and Law (English language) -- Maintenance of Equipment (Engineering) etc…

From the editor (aka Leslie): Sounds like a great way of life to me. You can find Alex’s career profile in the Discovery menu, above. Tomorrow (Saturday), Bill Crawford and I will attend the daily meeting on the Bridge to collect a little video related to your question. Thanks and keep ‘em coming!

### Percent recovery and Questions!

Hooray -- your answers for percent recovery are correct!! Here's a question back at you: What factors might influence percent recovery when coring?

I can answer the birthday question myself -- no, not everybody gets to drive on their birthdays. In this case, we happened to be leaving a drill site, which can be a fun time for folks to steer the ship. This particular day was also Kelly's 25th and the eve of Becky Robinson's birthday. Becky didn't get to drive because we left the site during her shift as a sedimentologist. We hope to catch her another time. But hey, that's a great idea...

About your other questions, we've distributed them to a variety of people who can provide the very best answers, watch for another posting before the weekend.

Leslie